Sistem Integumen pada Pisces

Lapisan epidermis pada ikan selalu basah karena adanya lendir yang dihasilkan oleh sel-sel yang berbentuk piala yang terdapat di seluruh permukaan tubuhnya. Epidermis merupakan bagian tubuh yang berhubungan langsung dengan lingkungan dan sistem somatis, mempunyai sejarah evolusi yang kompleks. Integumen sekalian hewan merupakan lapisan protektif yang menjaga lalulintas air dan zat-zat yang terlarut di dalamnya secara bebas. Epidermis tidak dilengkapi dengan pembuluh-pembuluh darah, keperluan metabolisme diperoleh secara difusi, karena itu kecenderungan dari sel-sel yang paling di luar untuk menjadi mati dan lepas sangat besar sekali. Epidermis bagian dalam terdapat lapisan sel yang disebut stratum germinativum (lapisan malphigi). Lapisan ini sangat giat dalam melakukan pembelahan untuk menggantikan sel-sel bagian luar yang lepas dan untuk persediaan pengembangan tubuh.

Dermis yang didalamnya terkandung pembuluh darah, saraf dan jaringan pengikat memiliki struktur yang lebih tebal dan sel-sel yang susunannya lebih kompak dari pada epidermis. Derivat-derivat kulit juga juga dibentuk dalam lapisan ini. Lapisan dermisi berperan dalam pembentukan sisik pada ikan yang bersisik, dan derivat-derivat kulit lainnya. Asal mula terbentuknya dermis ini belum banyak diketahui; diperkirakan bahwa jaringan ikat di bawah epidermis dulunya berubah, terutama sekali menjadi tulang pada hewan nenek moyang vertebrata, seperti yang terlihat pada fosil-fosil Ostracodermi yang mempunyai prisai-prisai tulang pada kulitnya, yang pertumbuhannya sangat baik.

L E N D I R
Umumnya ikan yang tidak bersisik memproduksi lendir yang lebih banyak dan tebal dibanding dengan ikan yang bersisik. Ketebalan lendir yang meliputi kulit ikan dipengaruhi oleh kegiatan sel kelenjar yang berbentuk piala yang terletak di dalam epidermis. Kelenjar ini akan memproduksi lendir lebih banyak pada saat tertentu, misalnya pada saat ikan berusaha melepaskan diri dari bahaya/ genting dibanding pada saat atau keadaan normal.

Lendir berguna untuk mengurangi gesekan dengan air supaya ia dapat berenang dengan lebih cepat, mencegah infeksi dan menutup luka, berperan dalam osmoregulasi sebagai lapisan semi-permiable yang mencegah keluar masuknya air melalui kulit. Pada beberapa ikan tertentu menggunakan lendir sebagai alat perlindungan pada saat terjadi kekeringan, misalnya ikan paru-paru (Protopterus)yang menanamkan diri pada lumpur selama musim panas dengan membungkus tubuhnya dengan lendir hingga musim penghujan tiba. Beberapa ikan yang menggunakan lendirnya untuk melindungi telur dari gangguan luar, misalnya anggota dari genus Trichogaster.

S I S I K
Ikan yang bersisik keras biasanya ditemukan pada golongan ikan primitive, sedangkan pada ikan modern, kekerasan sisiknya sudah fleksibel. Hal tersebut sangat dipengaruhi oleh jenis bahan yang dikandungnya. Sisik dibuat di dalam dermis sehingga sering diistilahkan sebagai rangka dermis.

Di samping ikan bersisik terdapat pula ikan yang sama sekali tidak bersisik, di temukan pada ikan lajur (Trichiurus, Lepturancanthus, Demissolinea), ikan sub-ordo Siluroidea (Pegasius, Clarias, Fluta alba). Sebagai suatu kompensasi dari tidak terdapatnya lendir pada tubuhnya, mereka memiliki lendir yang lebih tebal sehingga badannya menjadi lebih licin.
Ada beberapa jenis ikan yang hanya ditemukan sisik pada bagian tubuh tertentu saja. Seperti “paddle fish”, ikan yang hanya ditemukan sisik pada bagian operculum dan ekor. Dan adapula yang hanya ditemukan sepanjang linea lateralis. Ikan sidat (Anguilla) yang terlihat seperti tidak bersisik, sebenarnya bersisik tetapi sisiknya kecil dan dilapisi lendir yang tebal.

Berdasarkan bentuk dan bahan yang terkandung di dalamnya, sisik ikan dapat dibedakan menjadi lima jenis, yaitu Placoid, Cosmoid, ganoid, Cycloid dan Ctenoid.
a. Sisik Placoid

Jenis sisik ini karakteristik bagi golongan ikan bertulang rawan (Chondrichthyes). Bentuk sisik tersebut menyerupai bunga mawar dengan dasar yang bulat atau bujur sangkar. Sisik macam ini terdiri dari keping basal yang letaknya terbenam di bagian dermis kulit, dan suatu bagian yang menonjol berupa duri keluar dari permukaan epidermis. Sisik tersebut merupakan struktur exoskeleton yang primitive yang mempunyai titik perkembangan menuju ke lembaran sisik yang biasa terdapat pada osteichthyes yang terdiri atas lempeng dasar, tangkai sentral dan duri. Bagian yang lunak dari sisik ini (pulp) berisikan pembuluh darah dan saraf yang berasal dari dermis. Sisik placoid dibangunkan oleh dentine sehinnga sering disebut dermal denticle yang di dalamnya terdapat rongga pulpa. Pertumbuhan dari sisik placoid menyerupai pertumbuhan gigi, yaitu dimulai dengan adanya pengelompokan dari sel-sel dermis yang seterusnya akan tumbuh menjadi lebih nyata membentuk papila dermis yang mendesak epidermis yang ada di sebelah permukaan. Gigi ikan hiu merupakan derivate dari sisik.


b. Sisik Cosmoid
Sisik ini hanya ditemukan pada ikan fosil dan ikan primitive yang sudah punah dari kelompok Crossopterygii dan Dipnoi. Sisik ikan ini terdiri dari beberapa lapisan, yang berturut-turut dari luar adalah vitrodentine, yang dilapisi semacam enamel, kemudian cosmine yang merupakan lapisan terkuat dan noncellular, terakhir isopedine yang materialnya terdiri dari substansi tulang. Pertumbuhan sisik ini hanya pada bagian bawah, sedangkan pada bagian atas tidak terdapat sel-sel hidup yang menutup prmukaan. Tipe sisik ini ditemukan pada jenis ikan Latimeria chalumnae.

c. Sisik Ganoid
Jenis sisik ini dimiliki oleh ikan-ikan Lepidosteus (Holostei) dan Scaphyrynchus (Chondrostei). Sisik ini terdiri dari beberapa lapisan yakni lapisan terluar disebut ganoine yang materialnya berupa garam-garam an-organik, kemudian lapisan berikutnya dalah cosmine, dan lapisan yang paling dalam adalah isopedine. Pertumbuhan sisik ini dari bagian bawah dan bagian atas. Ikan bersisik type ini adalah antara lain, Polypterus, Lepisostidae, Acipenceridae dan Polyodontidae.


d.Sisik Cycloid dan Ctenoid
Sisik ini ditemukan pada golongan ikan teleostei, yang masing-masing terdapat pada golongan ikan berjari-jari lemah (Malacoptrerygii) dan golongan ikan berjari-jari keras (Acanthopterygii). Perbedaan antara sisik cycloid dengan ctenoid hanya meliputi adanya sejumlah duri-duri halus yang disebut ctenii beberapa baris di bagian posteriornya. Pertumbuhan pada tipe sisik ini adalah bagian atas dan bawah, tidak mengandung dentine atau enamel dan kepipihannya sudah tereduksi menjadi lebih tipis, fleksibel dan transparan. Penempelannya secara tertanam ke dalam sebuah kantung kecil di dalam dermis dengan susunan seperti genting yang dapat mengurangi gesekan dengan air sehingga dapat berenang lebih cepat. Sisik yang terlihat adalah bagian belakang (posterior) yang berwarna lebih gelap daripada bagian depan (anterior) karena bagian posteriornya mengandung butir-butir pigmen (chromatophore). Bagian anterior (terutama pada bagian tubuh) transparan dan tidak berwarna. Perbedaan antara tipe sisik cycloid dengan ctenoid adalah pada bagian posterior sisik ctenoid dilengkapi dengan ctenii (gerigi kecil). Focus merupakan titik awal perkembangan sisik dan biasanya berkedudukan di tengah-tengah sisik.

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